Facts about Delhi (Know Your States)

Delhi GK Questions PDF
India Gate, New Delhi
Delhi is a city and union territory of India. Delhi is officially known as National Capital Territory of Delhi.

It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh on one side.

With total city population of 11 million, it is second most populated city in India after Mumbai. The population of NCT region is around 16.8 million.

It is also second wealthiest city after Mumbai with total wealth USD 450 Billion, and 18 billionaires and 23000 millionaires.

It is said Delhi has been built over seven times throughout the history. Some researcher argues the number goes up to 15.

Contrary to popular belief, Delhi is not Capital city of India. New Delhi, a district of Delhi, is Capital city of India.

Delhi is also center of National Capital Region, an interstate urban area, planned to release the increasing growth performance pressure on the city.

Quick Facts
Settled: 600 BC (First Recorded Settlement); 3000 BC (First Settlement)
Incoporated: 1857
Capital Formation: 1911
Established as Union Territory: 1956
Foundation of NCT: 1 February 1992
Capital: New Delhi
Districts: 11
Lok Sabha Seats: 7
Rajya Sabha Seats: 3
Vidhan Sabha Seats: 70
Lt. Governer: Anil Baijal
Chief Minister: Arvind Kejriwal
Commissionar of Police: Amulya Patnaik
Total Area: 1484.0 Km²
Population: 16,787,941
Density: 11312/Km²
Official Languages: Hindi, English, Punjabi and Urdu
State Animal: Nilgai
State Bird: House Sparrow

Name
There are many legends associated with the name of Delhi. One group legend holds that the names is derieved from Dilu, a king who built a city at present location of Delhi around 50 BC.

Another legend argues that the name comes from Prakrit word "dhilli" as the soil was not strong enough to hold the Iron Pillar by Tomaras.

The coins that were used by Tomaras in the region were also called "delhiwal".

Some mythologist argues, King Prithviraja of Indraprastha built a fort at present location of Purana Qila for the people of this region. He named the forst "dehail", so tha name Delhi.

Another legend suggests that the name Delhi is a corruption of Dhillika.

The people of Delhi are popularly known as Delhites or Dilliwalas.

History
Delhi is believed to be legendary site of Indraprastha, the Capital city of Pandavas. According to Mahabharata, it was a huge forest known as Khandavaprastha, which was burned down to make a new capital, Indraprastha.

The earliest arheological evidence of settlement dates back to Mauryans. In 1996, an Ashokan relic was found near Srinivaspuri.

Until, now, remains of eight major settlements have been found in the city, and if we count the minor settlements, the number goes up to 15.

Surajkund (or Anangpur; currently, part of neighbouring city Faridabad) is the first settlement found in the region. It was established around 9th or 10th century.

Another city, Lal Kot, was founded by Tomar King Anangpal, around 10 KM from Surajkund. Lal kot was later conquered by Chauhan King Prithviraj Chauhan and he renamed the Lal Kot as Qila Rai Pithora. The area is now known as Mehrauli.

In 1192, Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and appointed his General Qutb-ud-din Aibak the Administrator of Delhi.

In 1206, after death of Mohammed Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak declared his independence and laid the foundation of Delhi Sultanate and Mamluk (Slave/Ghulaam) dynasty.

Qutb-ud-din Aibak started the construction of Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, which was later completed by his successor Iltumish.

Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltumish, succeeded him as the ruler of Delhi. She is the first and only female ruler of Delhi.

After Slave Dynasty, Delhi became the seat of Khalji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty, and Lodi Dynasty.

During this time, Siri fort was established by Allauddin Khilji in 1305. Tughlaqabad was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in 1320. Jahapannah, enclosing suburbs of Siri fort and Qila Rai Pithora, was established by Muhammad bin Tughlaq in 1325 and Ferozabad by Firuz Shah Tuglaq in 1356.

In 1398, Timur Lang invaded India. On 18 December 1398, he defeated Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq, looted the city, and killed more than 100000 city inhabitants.

In 1526, Babur defeated the last Afghan Lodi King Ibrahim and established Mughal Dynasty in India. Mughals ruled India for three centuries.

However, the Mughal rule was briefly intrupted by Sher Shah Suri and Hemu in middle of 16th century. Sher Shah Suri built the sixth city of Delhi, Dinpannah.

After death of Sher Shah Suri, Islam Shah took control of Delhi till 1553.

In 1553, Hem Chandra, also known as Hemu, captured Delhi on behalf of Adil Shah. He later acceded to the throne of Delhi, briefly establishing the Hindu Raj.

After defeating Hemu, in the Battle of Panipat, Akbar regained the seat of Delhi but moved his Capital to Agra.

In mid of 17th Century, his grandson and the fifth Mughal Emperor Shahjahan returned to Delhi, establishing a new capital city, Shahajanabad, now known as Old Delhi or Purani Dilli.

In 1658, Aurangzeb, son of Shahjahan, crowned himself as new Mughal Emperor at Shalimar Bagh (Aizzabad Bahg).

In 1737, Bajirao I marched toward Delhi. He defeated the Mughals in First Battle of Delhi and ransacked the city.

In 1739, Delhi was looted by Nadir Shah, who defeated Mughals in the Battle of Karnal. He took famous Peacock Throne, Daria-i-Noor, Koh-i-noor along with other precious jewels and items. He killed more than 30000 citizens of the city.

In 1757, Ahmad Shah Durrani entered in India and arrested Mughal emperor. In August 1757, Marathas again attacked the Delhi in Second Battle of Delhi, defeating Najb-ud-Daula and his Rohilla Afghan Army. They established Mughal Emperor as the Emperor of Delhi against the Chauth of their revenue.

In 1803, during Second Anglo-Maratha War, British East India Company defeated Marathas and ended their dominance over the city. The Mughal Emperor became only a face of Delhi seat, which was in reality, controlled by British East India Company.

In 1857, after Indian Revolt of 1857, British took over Delhi from Mughal Empire. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, was exiled to Rangoon and Mughal India was annexed as part of British India.

Until 1911, under British East India Company rule and later, during British Raj, Calcutta served as Capital of the country.

In 1911, King George V was crowned as the Emperor of India at Delhi Durbar. In his coronation ceremony, he annouced the shifting of the Capital back to Delhi.

British architect Edwin Lutyens designed the new city.

In 1931, New Delhi was officially inaugurated as the seat of Government of India.

In 1947, after Partition of India, thousands of Hindus and Sikhs came to India, and they were settled in the colonies like Chitranjan Park.

In 1956, during state reorganization of India, Delhi was established as Union Territory.

In 1991, with 69th Amendment in the constitution, Union Territory of Delhi became to be known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. A legislative assembly was also formed with limited powers.

Geography
Delhi is located in the heart of North India. It is bordered by Haryana from three sides and Uttar Pradesh from one.

Delhi is on the bank of Yamuna river. Hindon river, a tributary of Yamuna River, separates Delhi from Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh).

The Delhi ridge (part of Aravali Range) is prominent feature of the city. It reaches the height of 318 meters.

Delhi lies in the region of seismic zone-IV, which indicates vulnerable to major earthquakes.

With more than 20% tree cover, Delhi is greenest city in India.

Pollution
Despite the huge green cover, Delhi was rated most polluted city in 2014.

According to one estimate, air pollution causes 10500 deaths in Delhi per year.

Polity
Chaudhary Brahm Prakash is the first Chief Minister of Delhi. Sushma Swaraj is the first Woman Chief Minister of Delhi. Shiela Dixit is the longest serving Chief Minister of Delhi. Arvind Kejriwal is the current Chief Minister of Delhi

Administration
Initially, there were only one district in Delhi. In 1997, the city-state was divided into nine district, and by 2012, there are eleven districts in Delhi.

Delhi has unique government structure. As a Union Territory, Delhi is directly controlled by Central Government of India, but as a partial state, Delhi has legislative assembly and Chief Minister.

Delhi is also the seat of Supreme Court of India.

TransportDelhi's Indira Gandhi International Airpot, with an average footfall of 37 million passengers annually, is the busiest airport in India and South Asia.

Safdarganj Airpot, now used for only VVIP transport, is the first airpot of Delhi. The authorities closed the Airport for public following 2001 New York terror attacks.

In terms of road, Delhi has the highest road density in India, at 2103 km/100 km².

Delhi has one of the India's largest bus system. Delhi Transport Corporation owns largest fleet of CNG buses.

Delhi is a major junction of Indian railway and headquarters of Northern Railway zone. There are five main railway stations in Delhi: New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, and Sarai Rohilla.

Delhi has largest Metro system in the country. It is also the 12th largest metro system in the world.

Started operating from 2002, Delhi Metro is also second-oldest metro system in India after Kolkata Metro (1985).

Delhi Metro is the first Indian Metro Rail system who received the ISO certificate for efficient energy management.

Demography
According to 2011 Census, the population of Delhi is 16,787,941.

Due to urbanization, Delhi urban area, now includes Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida and Ghaziabad. Resulting, total population of 26 million people. These numbers also make Delhi, third largest Urban area in the world, after Tokyo-Yokohoma and Jakarta.

Hinduism is predominant religion, followed by Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Christianity, and Buddhism.

Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali and English are major languages of Delhi.

Other Facts
Delhi launched India's first witness protection scheme.

September 22 is celebrated as the Car Free Day in the Delhi.

Radio Mirchi, Delhi launched India's first airport radio station.