List of Endangered Languages of India

Endangered Languages in India
Endangered Languages of India
An endangered language is a language that is at a risk of fading out as it is no longer or speakers have shifted to a new language.

Language loss occurs when language has no native speakers left and it eventually extincts when everyone in community stop using the language. Although, languages have extincted in the past but the process has accelerated due to globalization and neo-colonization. The economically powerful languages are dominating the world.

According to SIL International's Ethnologue, there are more than 7000 languages in the world and out of which, 50% of world population speaks top 20 languages.

In recently released data, UNESCO Atlas of World's Languages in Danger lists around 2500 languages. Gravely, India tops the list with 197 endangered languages, followed by United States with count of 191 languages and Brazil with 190 languages.

According to UNESCO report, among 197 endangered Indian languages, 81 are vulnerable, 63 definitely endangered, 6 are severely endangered, 42 are critically endangered and 5 have been extincted.

If we look at the data Indian state-wise, Andaman and Nicobar Islands tops the list with 11 endangered languages, followed by Manipur and other states.

Criteria To Classify Languages On Scale of Safe to Extinct
Safe: Language spoken by all age group.
Vulnerable: Not spoken by children outside home.
Definitely Endangered: Children not speaking.
Severely Endangered: Only seniors (Old Generation) speaking.
Critically Endangered: Spoken by oldest generation and semi-speakers.
Extinct: No record of any native language speaker in past 50 years.

Causes
1. Globalization: In India, thanks to globalization and colonized mindset, English is growing and used by new generation of India. English has become language of knowledge and employability.
2. Natural Disasters, famines and diseases can be held responsible for language loss and extinction. For example, in 2004, Tsunami killing majority of Andaman Island populace.
3. War and genocide: Examples of languages loss/extinction can be easily seen in Australia, when colonist wiped out entire population indigenous Tasmanian. Currently in Americas, where many indigenous communities are facing genocidal violence.
4. Political repression: One can see its example, in Maharashtra, where people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are forced to use Marathi.

Prevention
There is no minority language in India. The Census of India categorize languages in two broad categories. First, 22 Scheduled languages which are listed in the Constitution of India, and 100 Non-Scheduled languages.

In 2014, the Government of India has launched a scheme namely Scheme for Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages in India (SPPEL) for the protection and preservation of endangered languages. Under this scheme, CIL Mysore is working along with state and central universities across the nation to identify, document and preserve all Indian languages with less than 10000 native speakers.

Currently, CIL has identified 520 such languages and have started research and documentation for 77 languages.

List of Indian languages which are listed by UNESCO as endangered languages.


LanguageStatusSpoken Elsewhere
A'tongSeverely endangered
AdiVulnerableChina
AhomExtinct
AimolCritically endangered
AitonSeverely endangered
Anal languageVulnerable
AndroExtinct
AngamiVulnerable
AngikaVulnerableNepal
AoVulnerable
ApataniVulnerable
AsurDefinitely endangered
BadagaDefinitely endangered
BaghatiCritically endangered
BaltiVulnerablePakistan
BanganiCritically endangered
BangniVulnerable
BawmDefinitely endangeredBangladesh
BellariCritically endangered
BhadravahiDefinitely endangeredPakistan
BhalesiDefinitely endangered
BharmauriDefinitely endangered
BhumjiVulnerable
BieteDefinitely endangered
BirhorCritically endangered
BishnupuriyaVulnerable
BodoVulnerable
BokarVulnerableChina
BoriDefinitely endangeredChina
BrokshatDefinitely endangered
BunanDefinitely endangered
ByangsiDefinitely endangeredNepal
ChairelExtinct
ChambealiDefinitely endangered
ChangVulnerable
ChokriVulnerable
ChurahiDefinitely endangered
Cuona MenbaVulnerableBhutan, China
DakpaDefinitely endangeredBhutan
DarmaDefinitely endangeredNepal
DeoriDefinitely endangered
DimasaVulnerable
GadabaCritically endangered
GaloVulnerable
GangteDefinitely endangered
GarhwaliVulnerable
GataSeverely endangered
GhondiVulnerable
GorumDefinitely endangered
Great Andamanese LanguageCritically endangered
GutobVulnerable
HanduriCritically endangered
Hill MiriDefinitely endangered
HmarVulnerable
HoVulnerable
HrangkholVulnerable
Hruso (Aka)Definitely endangered
IduDefinitely endangeredChina
IrulaVulnerable
JadDefinitely endangeredPakistan
JangshungDefinitely endangered
JarawaCritically endangered
JaunsariDefinitely endangered
JuangDefinitely endangered
KabuiVulnerable
KachariDefinitely endangered
KanashiDefinitely endangered
KangdiDefinitely endangered
KarbiVulnerable
KhambaDefinitely endangeredChina
KhamptiVulnerable
KhariaVulnerable
KhasaliDefinitely endangered
KhezaVulnerable
KhiamnganVulnerable
KhoraoVulnerable
KhowaDefinitely endangered
KinnauriDefinitely endangered
KochDefinitely endangered
KodaVulnerable
KodaguDefinitely endangered
KoirengCritically endangered
KokborokVulnerableBangladesh
KolamiDefinitely endangered
KomDefinitely endangered
KondaDefinitely endangered
KonyakVulnerable
KoragaCritically endangered
KorkuVulnerable
KoroDefinitely endangered
KorwaVulnerable
KotaCritically endangered
KuiVulnerable
KuluiDefinitely endangered
KumaoniVulnerableNepal
Kundal ShahiDefinitely endangeredPakistan
KurruDefinitely endangered
KurubaCritically endangered
KurukhVulnerable
KuviDefinitely endangered
LadakhiVulnerableChina
LamgangCritically endangered
LamongseCritically endangered
LangrongCritically endangered
LepchaDefinitely endangeredBhutan
LhotaVulnerable
LiangmaiVulnerable
LimbuDefinitely endangered
LishpaDefinitely endangered
LuroCritically endangered
MahasuiDefinitely endangered
MaltoDefinitely endangered
ManchandVulnerable
MandaCritically endangered
MandealiDefinitely endangered
MaoVulnerable
MaraDefinitely endangered
MaramVulnerable
MaringVulnerable
MechSeverely endangered
MeiteiVulnerable
MijiDefinitely endangered
MijuVulnerable
MilangDefinitely endangered
MinyongVulnerable
MisingDefinitely endangered
MizoVulnerable
Motuo MenbaDefinitely endangered
MoyonDefinitely endangered
MraCritically endangeredChina
MundariVulnerable
MuotCritically endangered
MziemeVulnerable
NaCritically endangeredChina
NahaliDefinitely endangered
NaikiCritically endangered
NihaliDefinitely endangered
NocteVulnerable
NruanghmeiVulnerable
NyishiVulnerable
OngeCritically endangered
PadamVulnerable
PadriVulnerable
PaiteVulnerable
PangvaliCritically endangered
ParjiCritically endangered
Pasi (Asi)Definitely endangered
PengoCritically endangered
PhomVulnerable
PochuriVulnerable
PuCritically endangered
PurikVulnerablePakistan
PurumCritically endangered
RabhaVulnerable
RangkasExtinct
RemoSeverely endangered
RengmaVulnerable
RongpoVulnerable
RugaCritically endangered or Extinct
SaneynoCritically endangered
SangtamVulnerable
SengmaiExtinct
SentinelseCritically endangered
SherdukpenVulnerable
SherpaVulnerableChina
ShompenCritically endangered
SimiVulnerable
SingphoDefinitely endangered
SirmaudiCritically endangered
SoraVulnerable
SpitiVulnerablePakistan
SulungDefinitely endangeredChina
TaginVulnerable
Tai NoraCritically endangered
Tai PhakeSeverely endangered
Tai RongCritically endangered
TakahanyilangCritically endangered
TamangVulnerableNepal
TangamCritically endangered
TangkhulVulnerable
TangsaVulnerable
TaraoCritically endangered
TaruangVulnerableChina
TawangVulnerable
ThadoVulnerable
TinanDefinitely endangeredChina
TiwaDefinitely endangered
TodaCritically endangered
TotoCritically endangered
TshangilaVulnerableBhutan
TuluVulnerable
TuriDefinitely endangered
WanchoVulnerable
YimchungruVulnerable
ZaiwaDefinitely endangeredChina
ZangskariDefinitely endangeredPakistan
ZemeVulnerable