River Deltas in India

River Deltas in India
Ganga-Brahmaputra River Delta/Image Credit by NASA
A river delta forms due to deposition of sediments at its mouth, where it enters a slower moving or stagnant water body.

This generally happens when a river enters ocean, sea, estuary, lake, and reservoir. However, it is not usual for a river to carry sediments and form a delta. The west flowing rivers of India like Narmada River do not form a delta.

The following are major river deltas in India.

The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, also known as Sunderban Delta or Bengal Delta, is the river delta formed by Ganges-Brahmaputra in the Bengal region of South Asia.

It is the largest river delta in the world and has area cover of more than 105000 km². Approximately, 60% of delta lies in Bangladesh and 40% lies in India. It is one of the most fertile lands in the world, hence it is also known as the Green Delta. On another hand, it is also one of the highly populated regions in the world.

Indus River Delta
Indus River Delta forms where Indus River meets the Arabian Sea. It mostly lies in Sindh province of Pakistan with some part comes under Rann of Kutch, Gujarat.

It covers an area of 41440 km² with the active portion of 6000 km². It receives very less rainfall, between 25 cm and 50 cm every year. It is home to one of the largest Mangrove forest in the world and freshwater Indus river Dolphins.

Godavari Delta
Godavari Delta forms in the region where Godavari River enters the Bay of Bengal after its 1500 km journey from the Western Ghats of India. It is known for its beautiful Mangrove forests.

Along with Krishna Delta region, Godavari Delta region is known as Rice Granary of the South India.

However, the fertility of Godavari Delta is depleting day by day, mainly due to damming of the Godavari and rapid urbanization of the region.

Krishna Delta
Krishna Delta forms at the region where Krishna River enters the Bay of Bengal. It is also known for its Mangrove forests and highly fertile land.

Similar to Godavari Delta region, it is fast losing its fertility due to rapid industrialization and extensive damming of Krishna river.

Mahanadi River Delta
Mahanadi River Delta forms at the region where Mahanadi meets the Bay of Bengal. The delta is known for its highly fertile alluvial soil.

Mahanadi River deposits more silt than almost any other river in the Indian subcontinent.

Other prominent River Deltas in India are Cooum River Delta (Chennai), Kaveri River Delta, and Kabani River Delta (Kerala).