Analogy - Logical Reasoning Questions and Answers

Analogy: Tips To Pass Analogy Test
Analogy simply means a relationship of one object with another object in certain aspects. The aim of analogy is to test the candidate's cognitive ability to relate and differentiate between problems and their respective solutions, to make choices and predictions required to do in a tough scenario, and to make distribute the good, part the items, or do the needful required for the successful execution of the task.

Different types of the analogy related questions covered in this tutorial are
1. Analogous Pair Completion
2. Analogous Pair Pair
3. Direct Analogy
4. Double Analogy
5. Similar Word Selection
6. Analogy Detection
7. Multiple Word Analogy
8. Letter Based Analogy
9. Number Based Analogy

1. Analogous Pair Completion
In this type of analogical problems, a pair of words is given and these  words are related to each other in a some way. Beside this pair, a lone word is also given. The candidate is required to find a particular relationship between the given pair of words, and find a related word from available options to form a pair (of similar relation) with that lone word.

E1. Pulp : Paper :: Hemp : ?
(a) Rope
(b) Yarn
(c) Basket
(d) Cotton

Answer: (a) Pulp is the basic raw material used in the production of paper. Similarly, hemp is used in the production of rope.

E2. Doctor : Diagnosis : : Judge : ?
(a) Court
(b) Punishment
(c) Lawyer
(d) Judgement

Answer: (d) As Doctor diagnoses the patient, the judge judges before giving the punishment.

E3. Chaos : Peace :: Lanky : ?
(a) Short
(b) Lengthy
(c) Great
(d) Fine

Answer: (a) "Chaos" is the antonym of "Peace", similarly "Lanky" is the antonym of "Short".

2. Analogous Pair Selection
In this type of problems, a pair of word is given followed by four pair of words. A candidate is required to pick the pair which bears the same relationship as the question pair.

E4. India : New Delhi
(a) China : Shanghai
(b) Switzerland : Zurich
(c) Pakistan : Islamabad
(d) Sri Lanka : Colombo

Answer: (b) As New Delhi is the capital city of India, Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan.

E5. Energy : joule

(a) Axe : Grind
(b) Ammeter : Current
(c) Power : Ampere
(d) Resistance : ohm

Answer: (d) As Joule is the SI unit of the Energy, Ohm is the SI unit of the Resistance.

E6. Hymn : Praise
(a)  Dirge : Grief
(b) Prayer : Congregation
(c) Liturgy : Rite
(d) Lullaby : Child

Answer: (a) Hymn is the song of praise usually sung during festivals. Similarly, dirge is the song of grief sung during funerals.

3. Direct Analogy
In direct analogies, the candidate is required to identify the relationship between the first two words, and pick a word from given options which bears similar relationship with third word in the problem.

E.7 'Museum' is related to 'Curator' in the same way as 'Prison' is related to ...

(a) Manager
(b) Monitor
(c) Jailor
(d) Warden

Answer: (c) First is managed by second. In this problem, museum is managed by Curator and prison is managed by jailor.

E.8 'Town' is related to 'Village' in the same way as 'Urban' is related to ...
(a) City
(b) Metropolis
(c) Rural
(d) Semi-Urban

Answer: (c) As village has antonymous relationship with town, rural has antonymous relationship with urban.

E.9 'Melt' is related to 'Liquid' in the same way as 'Freeze' is related to ...
(a) Ice
(b) Water
(c) Crystal
(d) Cubes

Answer: As 'melt' is associated with 'liquid' after the process of melting of solid into liquid, the word 'freeze' is associated with ice after the process of freezing liquid into solid.

4. Double Analogy
In double analogy, two words are given which lies on each side of the double colon (::) in such a manner that lone word of the first pair has relationship to the missing word similar to missing word of second pair with lone word of this pair. A candidate is given four options, out of which, s/he has to select an option in such a manner that chosen set of words complete their respective pairs.

E.10 A : Statue : : Poet : B
(a) Sculptor, Canvas
(b) Dancer, Pen
(c) Sculptor, Poem
(d) Dancer, Chisel

Answer: (c) As Sculptor creates a Statue, similarly a poet writes a poem.

E.11 X : Wheat : : Brick : Y
X. (A) Cereal (B) Field (C) Bread (D) Farmer
Y. (P) Building (Q) Mason (R) Clay (S) Kiln
(a) AP
(b) BS
(c) CR
(d) DQ

Answer: (c) Wheat is used to make bread. In a similar manner, Clay is used to make Brick.

E.12 X : Square :: Arc : Y
X. (A) Line (B) Diagonal (C) Rectangle (D) Perimeter
Y. (P) Chord (Q) Circle (R) Diameter (S) Circumference
(a) BR
(b) CP
(c) DS
(d) AQ

Answer: (d) first is the part of the second.

5. Similar Word Selection
In these questions, a group of three or more words is given followed by four or five other words as options. The candidate has to choose the correct option which is similar to the given words in nature.

E.13. Sitar : Guitar : Tanpura
(a) Trumpet
(b) Violin
(c) Harmonium
(d) Mridanga

Answer: (b) Sitar, Guitar and Tanpura are all string instruments and Violin is also a string instrument.

E.14 Lucknow : Mumbai : Shimla
(a) Mangalore
(b) Hooghly
(c) Nagpur
(d) Jaipur

Answer: (d) Lucknow is the capital of Uttar Pradesh, Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtra, and Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh. In similar manner, Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan.

E.15 Calf : Kid : Pup
(a) Infant
(b) Young
(c) Larva
(d) Animal

Answer: (c) All are young ones of animals.

6. Analogy Detection
In these problems, a candidate has to find out the common relationship among the given words and pick the option which correctly defines this relationship.

E.16 Nose: Eyes: Ears
(a) They are internal parts of human body.
(b) They are not external parts of human body.
(c) They are parts of the body below shoulder.
(d) They are parts of the body above shoulder.

Answer: (d) Nose, eyes, and ears are parts of the body above shoulder.

E.17 Judo : Karate : Taekwando
(а) They are names of martial arts.
(b) They can be performed by obese persons.
(c) They are performed on stage.
(d) They are important items of Asian Games.

Answer: (a) Judo, Karate and Taekwando are different forms of martial arts.

E.18 Gnu : Emu : Curlew
(a) These are fast runners.
(b) These are birds.
(c) These are small insects.
(d) These are animal pests.

Answer: (b) Gnu, Emu, and Curlew are birds.

7. Multiple Word Analogy
In these type of problem, a set of three or four terms are given with a certain relationship. A candidate has to choose similar set of terms with that similar relationship.

E.19 Magazine : Story : Article
(a) Tea : Milk : Sugar
(b) Television : Newspaper : Entertainment
(c) Novel: Drama : Literature
(d) Bed : Quilt : Pillow

Answer: (a) The first contains both second and third.

E.20 Chair : Door : Stick
(a) Tomato : Potato : Briiyal
(b) Statue : Brick : Pitcher
(c) Mason : Carpenter : Cobbler
(d) Book : Pen : Notebook

Answer: (b) All the three are made up of the same raw material.

E.21 Hunt : Pleasure : Panic
(a) Death : Disease : Germs
(b) Theft : Gain : Loss
(c) Game : Match : Win
(d) Rain : Cloud : Flood

Answer: (b) Just as to hunt gives pleasure to the hunter and creates panic for the hunted, similarly theft is a gain to the thief and a loss to the person robbed.

8. Letter Based Analogy
In this type of questions, candidate has to find out the relationship between given pair of letters on the left side of double colon, and then choose the correct option to make a pair with similar relationship on right side of the double colon.

E.22 LOVE : EVOL :: HARD : ?
(a) DRHA
(b) DARH
(c) DRAH
(d) ADRH

Answer: (c) In first pair, each letter exchange its position with corresponding letter (if read backwards). So L exchange its position with E, O exchange its position with V, V exchange its position with O, and E exchange its position with L. Henceforth, LOVE becomes EVOL, and similarly, HARD becomes DRAH.

E.23 AB : FG :: RS : ?
(a) XY
(b) XZ
(c) WY
(d) WX

Answer: (d) 3 letters are skipped between two groups of each pair to form the relationship.

E.24 ACE : FHJ : : OQS : ?
(a) PUT
(b) RTU
(c) TVX
(d) UWY

Answer: (c) Each letter of the first group is moved five steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.

9. Number Based Analogy
In these problems, the relationship is based on the basic airthmetical operations, roots and surd values, and other basic mathematical operations.

E.25 8 : 72 :: 9 : ?
(a) 63
(b) 81
(c) 72
(d) 90

Answer: (d) As 8 * 9 = 72, 9 * 10 = 90 (n * n+1)

E.26 3, 12, 147, ?
(a) 1096
(b) 2136
(c) 4096
(d) 9581

Answer: (b) 3 = 3; 12 => 1+2 = 3; 147 => 1+4+7 = 12 => 1+2 = 3; 2136 => 2+1+3+6 = 12 => 1+2 = 3

E.27 42 : 20 : : 64 : ?
(a) 31
(b) 32
(c) 33
(d) 34

Answer: (a) 42/2 = 21 => 21-1 = 20; 64/2 = 32 => 32-1 = 31