Jain Literature (Holy Books of Jainism)

Jain Literature
The Jain literature comprises of Jain Agamas and following commentaries on them. It can be primarily divided into Digambara literature and Svetambara literature. The earliest Jain literary text such Agamas are written in Prakrit whereas later Jain texts are written in Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu.

Svetambara Jain Literature
Svetambara Jain Literature can be divided into (1) Jain Agamas and (2) Non-Agamas Jain literature.

Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas are the text based on the discourses of Jain Thirthankaras. The Agamas consists of 12 Angas, 12 Upangas, 10 Prakirnakas, 6 Chhedasutras, 4 Mulasutras and 2 Sutra Granthas, and all of them are written in Ardhmagadhi Prakrit.

The 12 Angas are 1. Acharanga Sutra, 2. Sutrakritanga, 3. Sthananga Sutra, 4. Samavayanga Sutra, 5. Vyākhyāprajñapti, 6. Jnatrdharmakathah, 7. Upasakadasah, 8. Antakrddaasah, 9. Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh, 10. Prasnavyakaranani, 11. Vipakasruta, and 12. Drstivada.

Drstivada has not survived the test of the time.

The 12 Upangas are 1. Aupapatika, 2. Rājapraśnīya, 3. Jīvājīvābhigama, 4. Prajñāpana, 5. Sūryaprajñapti, 6. Jambūdvīpaprajñapti, 7. Candraprajñapti, 8. Nirayārvalī, 9. Kalpāvatamsikāh, 10. Puspikāh, 11. Puspacūlikāh, and 12. Vrasnidaśāh.

The 10 Prakirnakas are 1. Catuhśarana, 2. Āturapratyākhyanā, 3. Bhaktaparijñā, 4. Samstāraka, 5. Tandulavaicarika, 6. Candravedhyāka, 7. Devendrastava, 8. Ganividyā, 9. Mahāpratyākhyanā, and 10. Vīrastava.

The 6 Chhedasutras are 1. Acāradaśāh, 2. Brhatkalpa, 3. Vyavahāra, 4. Nishitha, 5. Mahāniśītha, and 6. Jītakalpa.

The 4 Moolasutras are Daśavaikālika, Uttaradhyayana, Āvaśyaka and Pindaniryukyti.

The 2 Cūlikasūtra are Nandī-sūtra and Anuyogadvāra-sūtra.

Digambara Jain Literature
Digambara Jain Literature can be again divided into (1) Jain Agamas and (2) Non-Agamas Jain literature.

The Digambara versions of Jain Agamas are lost in time and they do not accept Svetambara version of Agama literature valid. The Non-Agama texts include two main texts, three commentaries, and four anuyogas (exposition) with more than 20 works.

The two main text of Digambara Jains are Shatkhandagama and Kasayapahuda. They holds equivalent position to Agamas in their mind.

Shatkhandagama is oldest Digambara Jain text, which literally means a scripture in six parts. The six parts of Shatkhandagama are 1. Jiva Sthana, 2. Kshudraka Bandha, 3. Bandhasvamitva, 4. Vedana, 5. Vargana, and 6. Mahabandha. Shatkhandagama emphasizes on the philosophy of Karma. The first three part discusses the philosophy of karma from the perspective of soul, and last three parts discusses the extent of the philosophy.

Kasayapahuda is written at the same time around Shatkhandagama. It discusses the philosophy of Kasaya (the material world).

Four anuyogas are Pratham-ānuyoga, Carnānuyoga, Karnánuyoga, and Dravyānuyoga.

Purva
Jain scholars also discusses 14 Purvas. The Purva literally means prior or ancient knowledge. These discourses were said to be preached by 23 Tirthankaras before Mahavira Jaina. The text is now lost, but a detailed table of contents of the Drstivada and the Purvas has survived in the fourth Anga, Samavāyānga and Nandīsūtra.

The 14 Purvas are
1. Utpaad Pūrva: It deals with Living (Jiv), non-living (Ajiv), and its modes (Paryäya).
2. Agrayaniya Purva: It talks about 9 realities (Navtattva), 6 substances (Shad-dravya) and others.
3. Viryapravada Purva: It talks about energy of soul.
4. Asti Nasti Pravada Purva: It talks about multiplicity of views (Anekāntvād), Saptabhangi, and other similar philosophy.
5. Jnana Prāvada Pūrva: It talks about knowledge and ignorance.
6. Satya Pravada Purva: It talks about the importance of truth, restraint, silence (Maun) and speech.
7. Atma pavada Purva: It analyse soul from different view points.
8. Karma Pravada Pūrva: It talks about the theory of karma, its bondage, influx, its nature, fruition, and shedding.
9. Pratyakhyana Purva: It talks about giving up (Pachchhakhän), restraint, vows, and detachment.
10. Vidyā Pravāda Purva: It deals with expertise (vidyä), exceptional abilities, and practice.
11. Kalyana Pravada Purva: It deals with piritual alertness (Apramäd) and laziness (Pramäd).
12. Prana Pravada Purva: It talks about 10 types of life substances or vitalities (Prän).
13. Kriyā Visala Purva: It talks about the 64 arts of women and 84 arts of men.
14. Lokbindusā Purva: It deals with 3 parts of universe including heavens and hells