Manda (Jammu) - The Northernmost Site of the Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization Sites
Manda - The Northernmost Site of the Indus Valley Civilization
Manda is an archaeological site in Jammu. It was excavated by Archaeological Survey of India during 1976-77 by JP Joshi. It is situated on the right bank of Chenab River in the foothills of Pir Panjal range, near Jammu. It is considered as the northernmost limit of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The excavation at the site revealed a 9.20 m deposit with threefold sequence with two sub periods in Period I. Period I corresponds to Harappan age, Period II corresponds to Mauryan Age, and Period III corresponds to Kushan age. The site seems to be deserted after the Kushan age, and only shown some activity during the reign of Raja Gulab Singh in the eighteenth century.

Typical Pre-Harappan and Harappan pottery was found here, which includes jars, dishes, dishes-on-stand, beakers, goblets, copper double spiral headed spin, tangled bone arrow-heads, terracotta bangles, cakes, and chert blade. A few sherds of grey ware also found here. Due to minor excavation at the site, no specific structure was exposed, except a rubble wall.

Period II civilization represented by dishes, bowls, handis with featureless rim, and miniature pots, whereas Period III was represented by Kushan Pottery.

Indian Archaeology Review: 1976-77