Muvendar: Three Crowned Rulers

Muvendar or Moovendhar
Muvendar: Three Crowned Rulers
Muvendar, the Three Crowned rulers, refers to the triumvirate of Chola, Chera, and Pandya kings who controlled the politics of South India. Cholas ruled over Chola Nadu (part of modern day Tamil Nadu), Cheras ruled over Chera Nadu (modern Kerala), and Pandyas ruled over Pandya Nadu (modern-day Madurai and Tirunelveli). The Muvendar signalled a time of political unity and integeration in South India. They usually spend their time in-fighting with each other.

The name comes from Tamil word "mu" which means "three" and "ventar" which means king. Pandyas were the earliest Muvendar. They were mentioned by Katyayana and Valmiki. They were also mentioned by Megasthenes, Ashoka in his edicts, Pliny, and others.

According to a legend, the three warrior kings, Vira Cholan (Chola), Ula Cheran (Chera), and Vajranga Pandiyan (Pandya), were created by the Lord Shiva or Lord Brahma, out of Moon, Agni, and Sun to fight against demon king Shalivahana who was killing Shiv devotees.