Agroclimatic Zones of Rajasthan

Agroclimatic Zones of Rajasthan
Agroclimatic Zones of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is an agrarian state, where more than third-fourth of the population lives in rural areas. The agriculture sector contributes around 22 per cent to Gross State Domestic Production (GSDP). The weather of Rajasthan is mostly arid and hot with droughts common in the region. Due to which, we can see a large number of lakes in Rajasthan commissioned by former Rajas and Maharajas of Rajasthan. Post-independence, the Rajasthan Canal or also known as Indira Canal also increased the scope of agriculture in the state. Rajasthan has been divided into 10 agroclimatic zones by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) on the basis of parameters like rainfall, temperature, topography, soil, cropping pattern and irrigation. The agroclimatic zones of Rajasthan are

1. Arid North Western Sandy Plain
Rainfall: 200-370 mm
Area covered: 4.74 million hectare
Region: Barmer and parts of Jodhpur
Temperature: 8.0-40.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Moth bean,  Sesame
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard, Cumin 
Soils: Desert soil
Note: Most arid area of the state, and sometimes entire quota of rain happen on one day.

2. Irrigated North Western Plain
Rainfall: 100-350 mm
Area covered: 2.10 million hectare
Region: Shriganganagar and Hanumangarh
Temperature: 4.5-42.0 °C
Kharif crops: Cotton, Clusterbean
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard, Gram
Soils: Alluvial
Note: This region is drained by Ghaggar river. It is also irrigated by Indira Canal, Bakhra and Ganga Canal.

3. Hyper Arid Partial Irrigated Zone
Rainfall: 100-350 mm
Area covered: 7.70 million hectare
Region: Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Churu
Temperature: 4.5-42.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Moth bean, Clusterbean
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard, Gram
Soils: Desert soils

4. Transitional Plain of Inland Drainage
Rainfall: 300-500 mm
Area covered: 3.69 million hectare
Region: Nagaur, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and part of Churu
Temperature: 5.0-40.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Clusterbean, Pulses
Rabi crops: Mustard, Gram
Soils: Sandy Loam
Note: Drainage is not well developed. Seasonal streams appear during rains.

5. Alluvial Plain of Luni Basin
Rainfall: 300-500 mm
Area covered: 3.00 million hectare
Region: Jalore, Pali, Parts of Sirohi and Jodhpur
Temperature: 4.5-40.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Clusterbean, Sesame
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard, Gram
Soils: Red desert soils and Pali sierzems
Sierozens, alluvium, and hilly brown soils
Note: The region lies between Aravali and the western arid region. It is drained by seasonal Luni river.

6. Semi-Arid Eastern Plain
Rainfall: 500-700 mm
Area covered: 2.96 million hectare
Region: Jaipur, Ajmer, Dausa, Tonk
Temperature: 8.5-41.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Clusterbean, Sorghum
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard, Gram
Soils: Sierozens, alluvium, and hilly brown soils
Note: Banas river drains this region.

7. Flood Prone Eastern Plain
Rainfall: 500-700 mm
Area covered: 2.77 million hectare
Region: Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karoli, and parts of Sawai Madhopur
Temperature: 8.0-40.0 °C
Kharif crops: Pearl millet, Clusterbean, Groundnut
Rabi crops: Wheat, Barley, Mustard, Gram
Soils: Alluvial
Note: Except parts of Alwar and Sawai Madhopur, the region is drained by Banganga and Gambhiri river.

8. Sub Humid Southern Plain and Aravalis
Rainfall: 500-900 mm
Area covered: 3.36 million hectare
Region: Bhilwara, Sirohi, Udaipur, Chittor
Temperature: 8.0-39.0 °C
Kharif crops: Maize, Pulses, Sorghum
Rabi crops: Wheat, Gram
Soils: Lithostats to alluvium
Note: Falls under the region of low Aravali hills.

9. Humid Southern Plain
Rainfall: 500-1100 mm
Area covered: 1.72 million hectare
Region: Banswara, Dungarpur, parts of Udaipur and Chittor
Temperature: 7.0-39.0 °C
Kharif crops: Maize, Paddy, Shorghum, Blackgram
Rabi crops: Wheat, Gram
Soils: Calcereous Red soils
Note: The area comprises of low Aravali hills with the intrusion of lava rocks.

10. Humid South Eastern Plain
Rainfall: 650-1000 mm
Area covered: 2.70 million hectare
Region: Kota, Jhalwar, Bundi, Baran and Parts of Sawai Madhopur
Temperature: 10.0-43.0 °C
Kharif crops: Sorghum, Soybean
Rabi crops: Wheat, Mustard
Soils: Black Alluvial, clay loam
Note: Also known as Hadauti Plateau, a large number of river drain this area. Chambal is the main river along with Parvati, Kali Sindh and Banas.

Image Source: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/7/10/5547/htm

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