Bigha, Biswa, Kanal and Chatak: Land Measurement Units in India [Agriculture in India]

Land Measurement Units in India
Land Measurement Units in India
In India, one will encounter a variety of land measurement units. Sometimes, even when they have same or similar sounding name, these units will differ from each other. Bigha, Biswa, Biswansi, Kattha, Kanal are such units. However, with modernisation, standard units such as acre and hectare are being adopted by Indian farmers.


UnitConversion/Remarks
Standard Land Measurement Units in India
1 sq ft0.092903 sq m
1 acre43560 sq ft or 4840 sq yard or 4046.86 sq m
1 sq cm0.00107639 sq ft
1 sq m10000 sq cm
1 sq in0.0069444 sq ft
1 sq m10.76391042 sq ft
1 Sq Mile640 acre
1 sq yd9 sq ft; 1 sq yd is also known as Gaj in India
Local Land Measurement Units in North India
1 Bigha (Pucca)3025 sq yd; Used in Bihar, parts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
1 Bigha (Kacha)1008.3 sq yd; Used in Bihar, parts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana; one third of Pucca Bigha
1 Biswa (Pucca)151.25 sq yd; Used in upper parts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana; 1/20th part of Pucca Bigha
1 Biswa (Kacha)50.417 sq yd; Used in upper parts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana; 1/20th part of Kacha Bigha
1 Bigha968 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
1 Biswa48.4 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
1 Bigha900 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
1 Biswa45.0 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
1 Biswansi1/20 part of 1 Biswa
1 Killa4840 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab; equivalent to 1 acre
1 Ghumaon4840 sq yd; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab; equivalent to 1 acre
1 Kanal5445 sq ft; Used in some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, and Jammu & Kashmir; 8 Kanals make an acre
1 Sarashi30.25 sq ft; Used in Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh; measured as 1 karam x 1 karam; 1 marla has 9 sarashi
Local Land Measurement Units in South India
1 Ankanam72 sqft; Used in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka; 1 acre equals 605 ankanams
1 Cent435.6 sq ft; Used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka; 1 acre equals 100 cents
1 Ground2400 sq ft; Mostly used in Tamil Nadu
1 Guntha1089 sq ft; Used in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra; 40 Gunthas equal 1 acre
1 Kuncham484 sq yd; used in Andhra Pradesh; 1 Kuncham equals 10 cents
Local Land Measurement Units in East India
1 Chatak180 sq ft; used in West Bengal; 1 katha equals 16 chataks
1 Decimal48.4 sq yd; used in West Bengal; 1 acre equals 100 decimals; also known as Dismil
1 Katha2880 sq ft; Used in Assam; 1 Bigha equals 5 Kathas
1 Katha720 sq ft; Used in Bengal and Bangladesh; 1 Bigha equals 20 Kathas
1 Katha1361.25 sq ft; Used in Bihar; 1 Bigha equals 20 Kathas
1 Dhur1/20th part of Katha
1 Dhurki1/20th part of Dhur
1 Lechha144 sq ft; Used in Assam; 1 Katha has 20 lechhas
Local Land Measurement Units in Central India
1 Bigha1333.33 sq yd; Used in Madhya Pradesh
1 Katha600 sq ft; Used in Madhya Pradesh
Local Land Measurement Units in Western India
1 Bigha (Pucca)3025 sq yd; Used in Rajasthan; 1 Pucca Bigha = 165 ft * 165 ft
1 Bigha1935 sq yd; Used in Gujarat and some parts of Rajasthan; 1 Bigha = 132 ft * 132 ft
1 Biswa1/20th of a Bigha
1 Biswani1/20th of a Biswa