Lifelines of National Economy (Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes)

icons of a ship, a train, an aircraft, a car, a tram, a cycle, a bike and a man
Lifelines of National Economy (Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes)/Source: Tumisu
The development of any region is not solely dependent upon the availability of raw material and production of finished goods but also the movement of raw material and finished goods over space. This movement can be done via three domains of the earth: 1. Land, 2. Water and 3. Air.

There are five major transport systems that can be found in any region. These are 1. Roadways, 2. Railways, 3. Airways, 4. Waterways, and 5. Pipelines.

Transport
Roadways
As of 2015, the Indian road network stands at 54.7 lakh km, making it the third largest road networks after the United States and China. In India, roads are more preferred than railways because of the following reasons
1. roads are cheaper to build and maintain than railways
2. roads can provide access to undulating regions
3. roads can work on the higher gradient of slopes in mountainous areas such as the Himalayas
4. roads are economical in short length transports
5. roads provide door-to-door service, thus saving time and cutting the cost of loading and unloading material
6. roads provide linking service between railway stations, air and seaports.

In India, roads are classified into six different categories. These are

1. Super Highways
  1. These are 6 lane expressways linking megacities of India with the aim to reduce the travelling time between them.
  2. There are two projects running under Super Highways scheme: 1. Golden Quadrilateral and 2. North-South and East-West Corridors.
  3. Golden Quadrilateral links Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi whereas North-South corridor connects Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and East-West corridor connects Silcher (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat).
  4. These superhighways are maintained by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

2. National Highways
  1. These are primary roads connecting two major cities or parts of India.
  2. These are usually maintained by NHAI along with Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
  3. The historical Sher Shah Suri Marg between Delhi and Amritsar is National Highway Number 1 of India (Old System).

3. State Highways
  1. These are trunk roads linking state capitals with major city centres in a state.
  2. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public  Works  Department  (PWD).

4. District Roads
  1. These roads links districts headquarter with other places of importance in a district.
  2. These roads are maintained by Zila Parishad.

5. Rural Roads
  1. These roads link rural areas with nearby cities and towns.
  2. These roads have received much-needed attention under  Pradhan  Mantri Grameen  Sadak  Yojana.

6. Border Roads
  1. These are strategic roads linking India with its remote north and northeast borders.
  2. These roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organisation.

Generally, roads are classified into two categories on the basis of road material used. These are
1. metalled roads - made up of cement, concrete or even bitumen.
2. non-metalled roads - made up of mud and gravel.

Road Density
  1. Road density can be defined as the length of road per 100 sq km.
  2. It is lowest in Jammu and Kashmir (12.14  km) and highest in Kerala (517.77 km).
  3. The national road density stands at 142.68 km.

Problems of Road Transport in India
  1. A large number of roads are unmetalled.
  2. The length of national highways is inadequate.
  3. The city roads are highly congested.

Railways
  1. With a network of 66,687 km, Indian railways are fourth largest railway in the world after the United States, China and Russia.
  2. As of 2016, It has a fleet of 11,122 locomotives, 54,506 passenger service vehicles, 6,899 other coach vehicles and 2,51,256 wagons.
  3. It is divided into 16 zones for better functioning.
  4. It provides a faster and cheaper method to transport goods over long distances.

Problems of Railways Transportation
  1. Travelling without ticket
  2. Theft and damage of railway property
  3. Mindless chain pulling and stopping of the train

Pipelines
  1. Earlier pipelines were used to supply water to cities and industries. Now, it is used for transporting oil, gas and petroleum products.
  2. Solids can also be transported through pipelines in the form of a slurry.
  3. The initial cost of laying the pipeline is very high, but later the operating cost is very minimal.
  4. It also rules out losses or delays during shipment.
  5. There are three major pipelines in India. These are 1. Assam-Uttar Pradesh Pipeline, 2. Salaya-Jalandhar (Gujarat-Punjab) Pipeline and 3. Hazira-Jagdishpur (Gujarat-Uttar Pradesh) Pipeline.

Waterways
  1. Waterways is a fuel efficient, cheap and environmentally friendly mode of transport.
  2. They are suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
  3. India has inland waterway navigation of 14,500 km in length. Out of which, 5685 km can be traversed by a mechanized vehicle.

The major waterways of India are
  1. National Waterway No. 1: A 1620 km long stretch over Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia
  2. National Waterway No. 2: A 891 km long stretch over Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri
  3. National Waterway No. 3: A 205 km long stretch over the West Coast Canal in Kerala
  4. National Waterway No. 4: A total of 1078 km long stretches over Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry canal stretch.
  5. National Waterway No. 5: A total of 588 km long stretches over Brahmani river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and the East Coast Canal.

Sea Ports
  1. As of now, India has 12 major and 200 minor ports. Around 95% of international trade in India is done with the help of these seaports.
  2. Mumbai is the largest Indian port in terms of both space and traffic.
  3. The ports on western coast or Arabian sea are Kandla Port, Mumbai Port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Marmagao Port, New Mangalore Port and Kochi Port.
  4. The ports on the eastern coast are Tuticorin Port, Chennai Port, Vishakhapatnam Port, Paradip Port, Kolkata Port and Haldia Port.

Airways
  1. Airways is the fastest and costliest mode of transport.
  2. It can easily connect one to remote places in dense forests, high mountains, and arid deserts.
  3. The air transport was nationalized in 1953 to subsidize the travelling cost for the local populace. Special fare provisions are made for people in remote areas such as Northeast India and Andaman and Nicobar.
  4. Air India and its subsidiaries provide national and international air services to normal public.
  5. Pawan Hans Limited provides helicopter services to ONGC in its offshore operation.

Communication
  1. There are two types of communication: Personal Communication and Mass Communication.
  2. Personal communication includes postcards, letters, telegrams, telephones and emails whereas mass communication includes magazines, newspapers, radio, television, press and films.

Indian Post
  1. Indian postal network is the largest postal network in the world.
  2. They have classified mails into two categories: 1. First class mails which include cards and envelopes and airlifted between long distances. 2. Second class mails which include books, newspapers and periodicals and carried by land and water transport.
  3. For quick delivery in major cities, Indian post has introduced six mail channels. These are Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk MailChannel and Periodical Channel.

Indian Telecom
  1. Indian telecom network is one of the largest telecom networks in the world.
  2. Around two-thirds of Indian villages have Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility.

Mass communication in India
  1. Akashwani broadcasts a variety of programmes in major languages of India.
  2. Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest television terrestrial networks in the world.
  3. India is the second largest newspaper market in the world with more than one lakh publications registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India.
  4. India also produces the largest number of feature films.

International Trade
  1. The exchange of goods between two entities such as individuals, states and countries is known as trade.
  2. The trade between the two countries is known as international trade whereas local trade happens between two villages, towns or cities and intra-state trade happens between two or more states.
  3. International trade is often considered as a barometer of the economic strength of a country.
  4. Export and import are the two main components of the trade. The basic difference between export and import of a country is known as the balance of trade.
  5. When exports of a country exceed its import, the subsequent difference is known as the favourable balance of trade whereas when imports of a country exceed its exports, it is known as the unfavourable balance of trade.
  6. The major exports of India are agri products, ores and minerals, gems and jewellery and petroleum products.
  7. The major imports of India are petroleum, peals and precious stones, coal, coke, and heavy machinery.

Tourism as a Trade
  1. Both domestic and foreign tourism has increased in India over the past three decades.
  2. India saw the arrival of 8.03 foreign tourists in 2015 alone. More than 15 million are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
  3. It also promotes national integration and supports local handicrafts and other efforts.