Manufacturing Industries (Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes)

Factory Vector Graphic
Manufacturing Industries (Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes)/Image Source: rawpixel
Manufacturing can be defined as the production of valuable goods in large quantities from less-valuable raw material. For example, paper from pulp, sugar from sugarcane and aluminium from bauxite.

Manufacturing falls under the secondary sector. The economic development of a country is measured in terms of secondary and tertiary sectors. Developed countries have a larger number of people working in secondary and tertiary activities.

Importance of Manufacturing
  1. It helps in modernizing agriculture and provide an alternative job market for people.
  2. It helps in eradicating unemployment and poverty and bring down income disparity.
  3. Exports of manufactured goods help in trade and commerce and bring in much needed foreign exchange.
  4. It leads to national prosperity.

Agriculture and Manufacturing
It should be noted agriculture and manufacturing go hand in hand. Many agro products are used as a raw material in manufacturing whereas many industrial goods such as pipes, tractors and pumps come in handy to a farmer.

Contribution of Manufacturing Industry to Economy
  1. The contribution of the industry to the national economy pales in comparison to East Asian economies. The contribution of the manufacturing sector stands at 17% whereas it stands between 25-35% in East Asian economies.
  2. To improve productivity and competitiveness, the Government of India has set up the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC).

Industrial Location
The industrial location depends upon the following factors
  1. availability of raw material
  2. labour
  3. capital
  4. power
  5. market

The establishment of industries is followed by urbanization. These urban centres come up with new market and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, and together they form agglomeration economies.

Classification of Industry
Industries can be classified in the following ways

On the basis of raw material
  1. Agro-based industries - which uses agro products as raw material
  2. Mineral based industries - which uses minerals as raw material

On the basis of their role
  1. Key industries - which provide raw materials to other industries - also known as basic or nodal industries
  2. Consumer industries - which produces finished goods for direct consumption

On the basis of capital investment
  1. Small scale industries - which require a low amount of capital and labour
  2. Large scale industries - which require a high amount of capital and often skilled labour

On the basis of ownership
  1. Public sector - which is owned and managed by the state
  2. Private sector - which is owned and managed by an individual or a group of individual
  3. Joint sector - which is owned and managed by both individuals and state in partnership
  4. Cooperative sector - which is owned and operated by the producers, suppliers and workers.

On the basis of the weight of raw material and finished goods
  1. Heavy industries such as iron and steel
  2. Light industries such as electronics industries

Agro-based Industries
Industries based on agro products as raw materials are known as agro-based industries. For example, cotton, textile, sugar and food processing.

Textile
  1. In India, the textile industry is the second largest employer after agriculture and accounts for 4% of national GDP.
  2. It also accounts for 14% of industrial production and 24.6% of foreign exchange earning.
  3. It is an only industry with a complete value chain from raw material to the highest value-added product.

Cotton Textile
  1. India is said to be the birthplace of cotton. It was known for its high-quality hand made cotton since ages.
  2. During the 18th century, the Indian cotton industry could not sustain the onslaught of power looms and cheaper goods from England.
  3. In 1854, the first successful cotton mill was established in Mumbai.
  4. In the early years, the cotton industry was concentrated to Gujarat and Maharashtra. However, with technological innovations, it spread throughout the nation.
  5. India exports most of its high-quality yarn to Japan.
  6. United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France, Nepal, Srilanka and African countries are other major importers of Indian cotton goods.
  7. India supplies one-fourth of world cotton yarn, however, its garment trade stands at only 4%.

Problems of the Cotton Textile Industry
  1. No centralized market for cotton yarn and garment industry.
  2. Erratic power supply
  3. Old machinery
  4. Low output of labour
  5. Stiff competition

Jute Textile
  1. India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It stands at the second position after Bangladesh in terms of jute export.
  2. As of 2011, there are 80 jute mills in India, concentrated in Hugli river region.
  3. The first jute mill in India was set up at Rishra near Kolkata in 1859.

Factors Behind Jute Industry Concentration Around Hugli Rivers
  1. the proximity of the jute producing regions
  2. inexpensive water transport supported by railways and roadways
  3. abundant water supply for processing raw jute
  4. availability of cheap labour
  5. availability of banking, insurance and other facilities required for jute industry.

Challenge and Opportunities for Jute Industry
The major challenge faced by Jute Industries is the competition from international and synthetic fibre market. To combat this, the Government of India has come up with the National Jute Policy (2005) to promote and market Indian jute products in international markets. In addition, the Government of India has made jute packaging compulsory on an industrial scale.

Sugar Industry
  1. India is the second largest producer of sugar after Brazil and the largest producer of gur and khandsari.
  2. As of 2011, India has 682 sugar mills spread throughout the country. Sixty per cent of these sugar mills is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  3. Due to sugarcane production, climatic conditions and technological advances, sugar mills are shifting toward western and southern states such as Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Mineral Based Industries
Industries which are dependent on raw minerals are known as mineral based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry
  1. Iron and steel industry is one of the basic industries as it provides raw materials for many other industries such as ship-building industry and construction industry.
  2. It is often regarded as the index of national development and prosperity.
  3. In 2011, India was the fourth largest producer of crude steel and as of 2018, it stands at the second position, only after China.
  4. India is the largest producer of sponge iron.
  5. Most of the Indian steel and iron industries are concentrated in the Chhotanagpur plateau region.
  6. The major challenges of iron and steel industry are 1. limited availability of coking coal, 2. lower labour productivity, 3. irregular power supply
  7. and 4. poor infrastructure facilities.
  8. However, liberalisation and foreign direct investment has boosted and is changing the face of the industry.

Aluminium Smelting
  1. It is the second largest metallurgical industry in India.
  2. Aluminium smelting plants are concentrated in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,  Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  3. Aluminium is used in manufacturing aircraft, utensils and wires.

Chemical Industry
  1. It is the fastest growing industry of India and contributes 3% to the national GDP.
  2. It is 3rd largest in Asia and 12th largest in World in terms of size.
  3. It can be further divided into organic and inorganic chemical industries.
  4. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash and caustic soda.
  5. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals.

Fertiliser Industry
  1. The fertiliser industry is concentrated around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers, phosphatic fertilisers and other fertilisers with a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (p) and potash (k).
  2. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.
  3. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala are major players in fertiliser industry.

Cement Industry
  1. Cement is the main component in the construction industry. It requires bulky raw materials such as limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
  2. The first Indian cement plant was set up at Chennai in 1904. As of now, there are 128 large and 332 cement plants in India.
  3. India exports its cement to East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia.

Automobile Industry
  1. The automobile industry has seen an unprecedented jump in the last 15 years.
  2. At present, there are 15 utility vehicle units, 9 commercial vehicle units, 14 two and three wheelers unit.
  3. It is concentrated in Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune,  Chennai,  Kolkata,  Lucknow,  Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Electronics Industry
  1. It covers a wide range of products such as transistors, semiconductors and resistors used in the consumer electronics industry and telecommunication industry.
  2. It is majorly concentrated in Bangalore and other major centres are  Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

Information Technology Industry
  1. India has emerged as the IT leader in the last decade. It is considered one of the most favourable industries among youth and has more than 30% of women workers.
  2. As of 2011, there are 46 Software Technology Parks in India. Bengaluru is the leader in IT Industry followed by Noida, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune.

Industrial Pollution
Although industries have boosted the economy of the nation, this growth has arrived at the cost of environmental degradation. Industries are responsible for 1. Air, 2. Water, 3. Land and 4. Noise pollution.

Air Pollution
The high concentration of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide is the main cause of air pollution. It adversely affects humans, animals and plants alike.

Water Pollution
It is caused by the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial waste into water bodies. It degrades the quality of water and causes water borne disease among humans and animals.

Thermal Water Pollution
The release of hot water of industry and thermal power plants causes a sudden rise in temperature of the water body. The phenomena are known as thermal water pollution. It is mainly harmful to aquatic life.

Nuclear Pollution
The mishandling of nuclear power plants and weapon facilities and their waste cause nuclear pollution. It causes genetic mutation among humans and results in cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.

Land Pollution
Dumping of untreated waste into land causes land pollution. Land pollution leads to lower crop productivity, contamination of groundwater and other environmental issues.

Noise Pollution
The excessive sound produced by machinery, factory equipment and noise-making instruments causes noise pollution. Noise pollution causes severe physical and psychological problems among humans.

Controlling Industrial Pollution
Controlling Water Pollution

  1. Minimising use of fresh water
  2. Rainwater harvesting
  3. Treatment of waste and effluents before dumping them
Controlling Air Pollution
  1. Use of technology such as smokestacks to control air pollution
  2. Use of oil or gas instead of coal

Controlling Sound Pollution
  1. Use of silencers to reduce noise
  2. Use of noise absorbing devices such as earplugs to cancel noise