Natural Vegetation and Wildlife (NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 Notes)

A Wild Indian Deer
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife (NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 Notes)
There is a close relationship between landscape and vegetation. The type and thickness vary from one location to another. It mainly depends upon factors like altitude, temperature, moisture, slope and thickness of the soil.

Natural vegetation can be broadly classified as 1. Forests, 2. Grasslands, and 3. Shrubs.

Forests
Forests grow where they find ideal temperature and rainfall conditions. These can be classified as 1. Tropical Rain Forests, 2. Tropical Deciduous Forests, 3. Temperate Evergreen Forests, 4. Temperate Deciduous Forests, 5. Mediterranean Vegetation and 6. Coniferous Forests.

Tropical Rain Forests (Tropical Rainforests)
  1. Tropical Rain Forests are mostly found near equator and tropic region as these regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall.
  2. The trees do not shed leaves altogether. These forests are so dense that sometimes even sunlight does not reach the ground.
  3. The hardwood trees such as rosewood, ebony and mahogany are common features of these forests.
  4. Tropical Rainforest of Brazil or Amazon Rainforest is known as the lung of the earth due to its massive size and capacity to filter carbon dioxide.

Tropical Deciduous Forests
  1. These are rain-dependent forests found in large part of India, Northern Australia and Central America.
  2. Trees here shed their leaves in dry season.
  3. The hardwood trees such as sal, teak and neem are common features of this type of forests.

Temperate Evergreen Forests
  1. These are mid-latitudinal forests and common along the eastern side of any continent.
  2. These forests are found in Southeast USA, South China and Southeast Brazil.
  3. Both hardwood and softwood trees are found here such oak and pine.

Temperate Deciduous Forests
  1. These trees are found in higher latitude zones. Trees, here, shed their leaves in dry season.
  2. These forests are a common feature of Northeast USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and Western Europe.
  3. Animals such as deer, fox and wolf and birds such as pheasants and monals are common here.

Mediterranean Vegetation
  1. These are common features of west and southwest margins of continents.
  2. It is mainly found in the Mediterranean region of Europe, California of USA, South West Africa, Southwestern region of South America and Southwest Australia.
  3. These are marked by hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
  4. Citrus fruits, olives, figs and grapes are common here.
  5. Mediterranean regions are known as the Orchards of the World because of massive fruit production.

Coniferous Forests (Montane Forests)
  1. These are found in higher altitudes such as (50° to 70°) of Northern Hemisphere.
  2. These forests are also known as Taiga. In Russian, Taiga means pure.
  3. The softwood evergreen trees such as Chir, pine and cedar are the feature of this type of forest.
  4. These forests are known for silver fox, snow leopard, mink and polar bears.

Grasslands
Grasslands are found in the area of moderate rainfall. There are two types of grasslands: Tropical and Temperate grasslands.

Tropical Grasslands
  1. These are found in the torrid region, from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic Capricorn.
  2. The grass here can grow very tall.
  3. Tropical grasslands are known as Savanna in East Africa, Campos in Brazil and Llanos in Venezuela.
  4. These are known for a variety of wildlife such as Elephants, Zebras, Giraffes, Deer, and Leopard.
  1. These are found in mid-latitudinal zones and the interior region of a continent.
  2. The grass here is comparatively short and more nutritious.
  3. Temperate grasslands are known as Pampas in Argentina, Praire in North America, Veld in South Africa, Steppe in Central Asia and Down in Australia.
  4. Wild buffaloes, antelopes and bison are common here.

Shrubs and Scrubs
Shrubs and scrubs grow in dry regions such as desert and polar regions. These can be classified as thorny shrubs and tundra vegetation.

Thorny Shrubs
  1. These are common in hot and dry areas and mostly found in the western margins of a continent.
  2. Camel and fennec fox are examples of wildlife found in this area.

Tundra
  1. Shrubs such mosses and lichens are found here. They grow during a very short summer and common in polar regions.
  2. Polar bear and snow foxes are common here.