Our Country India (NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 7 Notes)

India and its neighbouring countries map
India and its neighbouring countries
India has an area of 3.28 million square km. The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3214 km and east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchh is about 2933 km. It is bounded by the Himalayas on the north, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south. India is the second most populous country in the world after China.

Location
  1. The mainland of India extends between 8°4' N and 37°6' N latitudes and 68°7' E and 97°25' E longitudes.
  2. 82°30' E has been adopted as the Standard Meridian of India and it is 5:30 hour ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time.
  3. India shares its land boundary with seven countries, namely, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar.
  4. India is separated from Srilanka by the Palk Strait.

Political and administrative divisions
  1. For administrative purpose, India has been divided into 29 states and 7 union territories.
  2. New Delhi serves as the capital of India.
  3. Rajasthan is the largest state and Goa is the smallest state by area.
  4. Telangana is the youngest and 29th state of India. It is demarcated from Andhra Pradesh.

Physical Divisions
India can be divided into 1. The Himalaya Region, 2. The North Indian Plain, 3. The Peninsular Plateau, 4. The Indian Desert, 5.  Coastal Regions and 6. Islands.

The Himalaya Region
The Himalayas can be again divided into Great Himalaya or Himadri (northernmost part of Himalaya), Middle Himalaya or Himachal (south of Himadri) and Shiwaliks (the southernmost range).

Northern Indian Plains
Northern Indian plains lie to the South of Himalayas. These are shaped by the Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries. Ganga and Brahmaputra form the world largest delta, Sunderbans, before emptying into the Arabian Sea.

The Great Indian Desert
The Indian Desert lies in the western part of India. It is dry, hot and sandy stretch of land.

The Peninsular Plateau
The Peninsular Plateau lies on the south of Northern Plains. Its features are uneven. Aravali borders it from the north-west. Vindhyas and Satpura are two important ranges of this region. Narmada and Tapi are important rivers of this region. It is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east.

The Coastal Plains
The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats form the Coastal plains of India. The Western Ghats is also known by the name of Sahyadri. The Western coastal plains are narrow whereas the eastern coastal plains are broader. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri drains into the Bay of Bengal after flowing through the Eastern coastal plains.

The Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands are two main Island groups of India.

Source: NCERT Class 6 Geography