Resources and Development (Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes)

Major Soils of India Map
Major Soils of India
Resources can be defined as any substance which can satiate our needs, provided it is accessible, acceptable and economically feasible.

The resources can be classified as
1. On the basis of Origin
(a) biotic resources - obtained from the biosphere and have life such as humans, livestock, animals, plants
(b) abiotic resources - all non-living things that are useful to us such as rocks and metals

2. On the basis of Exhaustibility
(a) renewable resources - which can get renewed or replenish in meantime such as solar, wind, water, forests and wildlife
(b) non-renewable resources - which take millions of years to form and exhausts when used such as fossil fuels and metals

3. On the basis of Ownership

(a) individual resources - privately owned by an individual or group of individuals such as land, plantation and buildings
(b) community resources - owned and shared by community members such as public parks
(c) national resources - owned by the state such as roads, canals, railways and airports
(d) international resources - regulated by international organizations and not owned by specific countries such as Exclusive Economic Zone beyond 200 nautical miles off the coast of a state

4. On the basis of Status of development

(a) potential resources - found in a region but not yet utilized such as petroleum basin near Mumbai
(b) developed resources - surveyed and determined for utilization
(c) reserved resources - surveyed but not determined for utilization, reserved to meet future requirement

Development of Resources
Natural resources are essential for human survival, but these natural resources are degrading due to reckless consumption. Some of the major problems that have originated in recent years
1. depletion of resources
2. accumulation of resources in a few hands
3. rise of environmental problems such as global warming, ozone layer depletion and so on.

Resource Planning
Keeping the current situation in mind, resource planning has become essential for the sustainable development and existence of life. It is a strategy developed for the judicious use of resources.

Sustainable development means development without hampering the environment and not compromising with the needs of future generations.

It comprises
1. identification and documentation of resources across the region. It requires surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation of the resources
2. developing a plan structure for the implementation of resource development plans
3. synchronizing development plans with national development plans.

In addition, technology plays a vital role in resource development. One can see a region with poor resources but good technology flourishes whereas a region with heavy resource but with no technology remains stagnant.

Land Resources
Land is one of the most important resources. It supports vegetation, wildlife and humans. However, it is finite in nature. Therefore, it becomes necessary to judiciously use our land resource.

The landmass of India can be divided into mountain, plains and plateaus. Plain counts for 43% and provides land for agriculture. Mountains count for 30% and ensure flows of perennial rivers. Lastly, plateaus count for 27% and rich in mineral deposits.

Land Utilization
Land on the basis of its utilization can be segmented into
1. Forest land
2. Uncultivated land - (a) Barren and wasteland (b) Land put to non-agricultural uses
3. Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land) - (a) Permanent pastures and grazing land, (b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops (c) Culturable wasteland
4. Fallow lands - (a) Current fallow (uncultivated for one or less than one year), (b) Other than current fallow (uncultivated for 1 to 5 years)
5. Net sown area

Land Use Pattern of India
India has a total landmass of 3.28 million sq km, but it has data of its 93% land. Data from most of the Northeast states except Assam and state of Jammu and Kashmir is missing due to various constraints.

India has a net sown area of 54%. It is more than 80% in states of Haryana and Punjab and less than 10% in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar.

The forest cover of India is just over than 22%. It is far lower than 33% recommended in the National Forest Policy (1952).

Land Degradation and Conservation Measures
At present, there are 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. 28% belongs to forest degraded land, 56% belongs to water eroded area and rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.

Factors Behind Land Degradation
1. Deforestation
2. Over-grazing
3. Mining
4. Quarrying
5. Over-irrigation
6. Dumping of industrial effluents

Techniques to Improve Land Quality
1. Afforestation
2. Stopping over-grazing
3. Planting shelterbelts
4. Control on mining and quarrying activities
5. Proper disposal of industry effluents

Soil
The upper layer of earth surface on which vegetation grows is known as soil. It takes hundreds of year to form one centimetre of soil. Some of the important factors behind the formation of soil are a relief, parent rock, climate, vegetation, microorganisms and time. On the basis of its formation, the soil of India can be divided as

Alluvial Soil
It is found in the Northern Plains, the Eastern Ghats and a small stretch of Rajasthan and Gujarat. It is formed due to the action of the river. It consists of various amount of sand, silt and clay.

It can be divided on the basis of grain size, regions of alluvial soil can be divided into duars, terai and chos. Similarly, on the basis of age, alluvial soil can be divided into Bangar (old alluvial soil) and Khadar (new alluvial soil). Bangar has grainier kankar nodules whereas khadar has a finer grain.

It has an adequate amount of potash, phosphoric acid and lime and known for its fertility. Paddy is the main crop of the alluvial soil.

Black Soil
It is black in colour and is the result of regional climatic conditions and parent rock. It is typically found in Deccan Trap region consisting of parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It extends to a section of Kaveri and Godavari valleys. It is also known as regur.

It is extremely fine in nature and rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. However, poor in phosphorus content. It develops crack during summer which helps in its aeration. It is ideal for cotton farming.

Red and Yellow Soil
Red and Yellow soil forms thanks to igneous rocks. It is mostly found in the southern and eastern part of Deccan plateau and parts of Northeast India. It appears red in colour due to the diffusion of iron in parent rocks. It looks yellow when hydrated.

Laterite Soil
It is found in the area of both high temperature and rainfall. It is a result of the intense leaching of soil due to rain. It is low in micro-organisms due to high temperature. It is mainly found in Karnataka,  Kerala,  Tamil  Nadu,  Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Assam. It is suitable for tea and cashew after proper soil enrichment.

Arid Soils
These soils are brown in colour, sandy in texture and saline in nature. There are known for high Kankar contain and with help of proper irrigation, these soils are cultivable. It is mostly found in dry and arid regions of Rajasthan.

Forest Soils
As the name suggests, these soils are found in hilly and mountainous regions. Its texture varies and depends upon its parent material. These soils are loamy and silty in valleys and have coarse grains in higher regions. Generally, these soils are acidic in nature.

Soil Erosion
The denudation and subsequent washing of the soil cover are termed as soil erosion. Soil erosion is a natural process and goes in tandem with new soil formation. However, the delicate balance is disturbed by human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, construction and mining.

Gullies, bad land and sheet erosion

  1. Gullies: These are deep cut channels that formed due to the action of the running of water, mainly in clayey soil.
  2. Bad land: It is a piece of land which have become unfit for cultivation.
  3. Sheet Erosion: When water flows as a sheet over a large area and denudes top layer of the soil. This type of erosion is known as sheet erosion.

Soil Conservation

One can adopt the following methods to conserve the quality of the soil. These are
1. Contour Ploughing
2. Terrace Farming
3. Strip cropping
4. Development of Shelter Belts
5. Afforestation
6. Controlled grazing
7. Controlled management of mining and quarrying sites.