Settlement, Transport and Communication (NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 7 Notes)

Settlement, Transport and Communication
Settlement, Transport and Communication (NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 7 Notes)
Settlements
  1. Settlements can be defined as the place where humans build their homes and community.
  2. The settlements mainly grew near a river valley where water and fertile lands are available in abundance.
  3. With further development, settlements grew to become a civilization. Some of the well-known river civilizations are Indus (India), Tigris (West Asia), Nile (Egypt) and Hwang He (China).
  4. The places where these settlements are developed are known as sites. The conditions for an ideal site are 1. favourable climate, 2. availability of fresh drinkable water, 3. suitable land and 4. fertile soil
  5. There are two types of settlements: permanent and temporary.

Temporary Settlements
  1. Settlements which are occupied for a short period of time are known as temporary settlements.
  2. These are generally settled by forest dwellers or people living in deserts.
  3. They mainly practice hunting, gathering, subsistence or shifting agriculture and transhumance.
  4. Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people. It is generally practised by nomadic tribes.

Permanent Settlements
  1. Settlements which are occupied for a longer or rather say an infinite amount of time is known as permanent settlements.
  2. Modern cities, towns and villages are examples of permanent settlements.
  3. The permanent settlements can be again classified as urban and rural settlements in terms of mode of living or compact or scattered settlement in terms of land use.

Urban Settlements
  1. Cities and towns are examples of urban settlements.
  2. People here work in the industry or service sector.
  3. These are known for modern structures such as well equipped schools and hospitals, shopping malls, cinema halls and theatre.
  4. These are well connected by means of air, rail, waterways and roads.
  5. Houses and other structures made up of cement and concrete are the common features.

Rural Settlements
  1. Villages are examples of rural settlements.
  2. People here are engaged in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, handicrafts and agro-trading.
  3. These settlements might not even have some of the basic facilities like schools and hospitals. A school or dispensary can be found in a cluster of villages.
  4. These might not also very connected with any well-developed roads. Some of these are connected to other places by means of kuchha road and waterways.
  5. Some of these settlements have mud houses with the thatched roof.

Compact Settlements
  1. A compact settlement is a closely build up area where land to build structures is available.
  2. Cities and towns are examples of the compact settlement. The small village usually in plain areas are also an example of compact settlements.

Scattered Settlements
  1. Dwellings settled in a large area are known as scattered settlements.
  2. Villages, especially in hilly areas, are examples of scattered settlements.

Transport
Transport is the mode by which people and goods move from one place to another.
There are four major means of transport. These are 1. roadways, 2. railways, 3. waterways and 4. airways.

Roadways
  1. These are mainly used for short distance transport.
  2. There are two types of roadways: Metalled (Pucca) and Unmetalled (Kutcha).
  3. The plains have a larger road network than hilly or desert area.
  4. Roads which are built underground are known as subways whereas flyovers are raised structures.
  5. Manali-Leh highway is one of the highest motorable roadways in the world.
  6. A 86 km stretch in Umlingla Top in Leh at 19300 ft is the highest motorable road in the world.

Railways
  1. Railways are ideal for transporting heavy goods.
  2. It is also a better option for longer journeys.
  3. Railways were the backbone of the first Industrial Revolution.
  4. With advancement in technology, superfast trains are introduced in many places over the world.
  5. The rail density is again more in plains and less in mountain areas.
  6. The US has the largest railway network in the world. followed by China, Russia and India.
  7. The Trans-Siberian Railway connecting St. Petersburg to Vladivostok (Russia) is the longest railway line in the world.

Waterways
  1. Waterways along with roadways are the earliest mode of transport.
  2. Waterways are reliable and cheapest to carry heavy goods.
  3. There are two types of waterways: inland and sea routes.
  4. Ganga-Brahmaputra (India), Great Lakes (North America) and Nile River (Africa) are prominent examples of inland waterways.
  5. Sea routes are known for transporting goods between countries. These routes are connected through ports.
  6. Some of the major ports are Singapore, Mumbai, Karachi, New York, Los Angeles, Rio de Janeiro, Durban, Capetown, Sydney, London and Rotterdam.

Airways
  1. Airways is the fastest and most secure way of transport. Though, it expensive in nature due to the high cost of fuels, but allows to reach the most remote areas. Weather heavily affect air traffic.
  2. Small aeroplanes and helicopters are very helpful in case of an emergency.
  3. Atlanta Airport is the busiest airport in the world whereas Indira Gandhi International Airport Delhi is the busiest airport in India.

Communication
  1. It is the process by which one can convey her or his message to others.
  2. With advancement in technology, humans have come with a faster way of communications such as telecommunication. Postal communication is one of the earliest of communication.
  3. With television, radio and newspaper, one can communicate to a large population. Such communication is known as mass communication.