List of Chemical Compounds and Their Common Names and Formulas

Chemicals and Their Common Names/Image Source: Bikki
If one go through previous year question papers, one can observe that examiners and quiz masters usually ask one or two questions to identify chemicals by their common name or chemical formula or both.

Sometimes, to make the question harder, they ask you to match multiple compound either with their common name or chemical formula. If not directly in General Awareness section, they can ask you question in Logical Reasoning as an analogy based question.

Though, it is not easy to remember every chemical compound, but here I have listed a selected few which commonly appear in UPSC, SSC, RRB and other exams.

List of Chemical Compounds With Their Common Name and Chemical Formula


Common NameChemical NameChemical Formula
AlumAmmonium aluminium sulphate(NH4)Al(SO4)2.12H2O
AspirinAcetyl salicyclic acidC9H8O4
Aqua regiaNitrohydrochloric acidHNO3+3 HCl
Battery acidSulphuric acidH2SO4
Baking sodaSodium bicarbonateNaHCO3
Bleaching powderCalcium chlorohypochloriteCa(ClO)2
Blue vitriolCopper sulphateCuSO4
BoraxSodium tetraborateNa2[B4O5(OH)4].8H2O
Brine Aqueous/SalineSodium chloride solutionClH2NaO
BrimstoneSulfurS
Butter of tinStanic chloride/Tin tetrachlorideSnCl4
CarbrundumSilicon carbideSiC
Caustic sodaSodium hydroxideNaOH
Caustic potashPotassium hydroxideKOH
Carbolic acidPhenolC6H5OH
ChalkCalcium carbonateCaCO3
Chile saltpeterSodium nitrateNaNO3
ClearwaterPotassium permanganateKMnO4
ColomelMercuric chloride
Corrosive sublimateMercuric chlorideHgCl2
Cream of tartarPotassium hydrogen tartrateKC4H5O6
ChloroformTrichloromethaneCHCl3
DolomiteCalcium Magnesium carbonateCaMg(CO3)2
Dry iceCarbon dioxide (solid)C
Epsom saltmagnesium sulfate heptahydrateH14MgO11S
FreondichlorodifluoromethaneCCl2F2
FormalinFormaldehyde (40% solution)CH2O
GammexaneBenzene hexachlorideC6H6C16
Galena Lead (II) sulfidePbS
Glauber's Salt Sodium Sulfate decahydrateH20Na2O14S
Glycerin Trihydroxy propanolCH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH
Grain alcohol (spirit)Ethyl alcoholC2H5OH
Green vitriolFerrous sulphateFeSO4
GypsumCalciumm sulphateCaSO4
Heavy Water Deuterium OxideD2O
HydrolithCalcium hydrideCaH2
Hypo (antichlor)Sodium thio sulphateNa2S2O3
Indian nitrePotassium nitrateKNO3
Iron pyrite (fool's gold) Iron disulfide FeS2
Jeweler's Rouge/Red Rouge Iron(III) Oxide/Ferric Oxide Fe2O3
Laughing gasNitrous oxideN2O
LimeCalcium OxideCaO
Lime stoneCalcium carbonateCaCO3
LithargeLead monoxidePbO
Lunar causticSilver nitrateAgNO3
MarbleCalcium carbonateCaCO3
MEKMethyl ethyl ketoneCH3C(O)CH2CH3
Marsh gas (damp-fire)MethaneCH4
Microcosmic saltSodium ammonium hydrogen posphate(NH4)NaHPO4
Milk of magnesiaMagnesium hydroxideMg(OH)2
Mohr's saltFerrous ammonium sulphate(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O
Moth ballsNaphthaleneC10H8
Muratic acidHydrochloric acidHCl
Oil of WintergreenMethyl salicylateC6H4(OH)(CO2CH3).
Oil of Vitriol/OleumSulphuric acidH2SO4
OxoneSodium peroxideNa2O2
Pearl ashPotassium carbonateK2CO3
Picric acid2, 4, 6, trinitrophenol(O2N)3C6H2OH
Philospher's woolZinc oxideZnO3
PhosgeneCarbonyl chlorideCOCl2
Plaster of parisCalcium sulphate hemihydrateCa2H2O9S2
PlumbagoGraphiteC
Prussic acidHydrogen cyanideHCN
PyreneCarbon tetrachlorideCCl4
QuartzSilicon dioxideSiO2
Quick limeCalcium oxideCaO
Quick silverMercuryHg
Radiation pillsPotassium iodideKI
Red lead (minium)Lead tetroxidePb3O4
Road DeicerCalcium chlorideCaCl3
Rochelle SaltPotassium Sodium TartrateKNaC4H4O6·4H2O
Rock Salt Sodium ChlorideNaCl
Rubbing alcoholIsopropyl alcoholCH₃CHOHCH₃
Sal ammoniacAmmonium chlorideNH4Cl
SaltpeterPotassium chlorideKCl
Salt of HartshornAmmonium bicarbonateNH4.HCO3
Salked lime (milk of lime)Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
SandSilicon dioxideSiO2
Sugar of leadLead acetatePb(C2H3O2)2
SugarSucroseC12H22O11
Table salt (common salt)Sodium chlorideNaCl
TelTetraethyl lead(CH3CH2)4Pb.
Tear gasChloropicrinCCl3NO2
Tinner's fluidZinc chlorideZnCl
Vermillion/CinnabarMercuric sulfideHgS
VinegarAcetic acidCH3COOH
Washing sodaSodium carbonateNAHCO3
Water glassSodium silicateNa2SiO3
White vitriolZinc sulphateZnS

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