Sikh Literature (Major Literary Works of Sikhism)

Sikh Literature: List of Sikh Religious Books
Guru Granth Sahib - 11th and Eternal Guru of Sikhs/Image Credit: Cchana
Sikhism is a comparatively new religion established only in the 15th century. It is based on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev. The beliefs and philosophies of 10 Sikh Gurus are compiled in the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy book of the Sikh community and is considered as the 11th and eternal Guru of the community.

Major Literary Works Related To Sikhism
Adi Granth
Adi Granth (the first book) was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev. It contains the teachings of first five Gurus (Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev himself) alongwith writings of other 15 philosophers of Bhakti and Sufi tradition. It was completed by 30th August 1604 and installed at the Harimander Sahib (Golden Temple) Amritsar on 1st September 1604. The Adi Granth was calligraphed by the Bhai Gurdas in Gurumukhi script.

Guru Granth Sahib
The Adi Granth was further expanded in 1678 and elevated to the status of Guru Grantha Sahib, the 11th and eternal Guru. It is written in Gurumukhi script in a language called Sant Bhasha. The Sant Bhasha is creole language that contains words from languages like Punjabi, Apabhramsa, Hindi, Braj Bhasa, Sanskrit and Persian.

Dasam Granth
Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth or commonly known as Dasam Granth comes second to the Guru Granth Sahib. It contains the writings of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. It is primarily written in the Gurmukhi script except for the Fatehnama, Zafar Nama and Hikayat, which are written in the Persian script. Some of its compositions such as Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are part of daily Sikh prayers.

Five Banis
The Five Banis are 5 prayers recited on daily basis as a commitment to the Sikh Gurus and Waheguru. The Five Banis are Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai and Anand Sahib. First three banis are recited in morning while last two banis are recited in evening. These Banis are taken from Guru Granth sahib and Dasam Granth.

Sarbloh Granth
Sarbloh Granth, also known as Mangalacharan Puran or Sri Manglacharan Ji, is a voluminous scripture, containing more than 6,500 stanzas. It is considered as amalgamation of writings of Guru Gobind Singh and other poets.

Khalsa Mahima
Khalsa Mahima is the name of two compositions, each composed by Guru Gobin Singh in the praise of Khalsa, present in Dasam Granth and Sarbloh Granth.

Janamsakhis, which literally means birth stories, are professed to be the biographies of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev. Each is written at different time and each contradicts one another. As of now, there are 4 Janamsakhis have survived. These are Bhai Bala Janamsakhi, Miharban Janam-sakhi, Adi Janamsakhi and Puratan Janamsakhi. Out of these four, the Bhai Bala Janamsakhi is considered most authentic.