Fundamentals of Computer

Fundamentals of Computer
Fundamentals of Computer
A computer is an electronic device that takes raw data as the input from the user and processes this data under the control of set of instructions (also known as programs), gives the processed information as the output and saves the output for the future reference.

However, to know more about computer, one need to understand some basic terms such as Data, Processing, Information, Hardware, Software and so on first, in order to fully understand the concept of computers.

  1. Data: It is a collection of raw facts and figure without any sequence. There is no meaning to it at that time. One can say, it is just a bunch of words and numbers.
  2. Processing: The process of extracting meaningful information out of raw data on the basis of instructions provided by an user is known as the processing. It is done by making the ncessary calculations, comparisions and logical decisions.
  3. Information: It is the processed data which have a certain meaning to its receiver.
  4. Storage: It stores the data and programs permanently for future usage.
  5. Hardware: It is the collection of physical elements which forms a computer system. It is an umbrella term used for all the physical and tangible parts of computer such as monitors, keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner and chips.
  6. Software: It is the set of programs and procedures which governs the computer hardware and tells them what to do and how to accomplish the task.

Major Characterstics of Computer
Following are the major characterstics of a computer:
  1. Speed: A powerful computer is capable of executing million of calculations in a second.
  2. Accuracy: It provides accurate and error free result if there are no errors  in the instructions provided by the user.
  3. Reliability: Their output is very reliable as long as the data is reliable.
  4. Memory: It can store large volumes of data and also easily retrieve the data when needed.
  5. Versatility: It can perform several tasks at one time.
  6. Automation: It can repeatedly perform the task without making an error and without any human intervention.
  7. Diligence: It can work for several hour without any break.

Applications of Computers
Nowadays computers have became synonymous with modern life, but here are some professional areas where computers hold more than others.
  1. Education
  2. Industry
  3. e-Governance
  4. Health
  5. Multimedia
  6. Banks
  7. Military
  8. Business
  9. E-commerce
  10. Publisihing